quinta-feira, 11 de novembro de 2010

Métodos de Recolha de Dados

Quando o investigador já definiu o tema e estipulou os objectivos que o servem, tem de definir aquilo que precisa de saber para avançar e como vai proceder à recolha da informação necessária.

Isto implica seleccionar métodos de recolha de dados, que podem ser qualitativos ou quantitativos, ou ainda com ambas as vertentes incorporadas.

Se optar por uma abordagem que recorra a vários métodos em simultâneo, o investigador está a utilizar a chamada triangulação de métodos (John Berry, 2006), que designa a dinâmica existente entre a análise de estruturas, processos e resultados, e a compreensão das mesmas.

Antes da selecção do(s) método(s) de recolha de dados, convém ao investigador verificar:

a) restrições/ disponibilidade quanto ao tempo e aos recursos financeiros;

b) a fiabilidade e validade dos métodos a utilizar.

Segundo John Berry, da Universidade de Plymouth: The prime criterion for choosing a particular data gathering method in action research is whether it is anticipated that the method will give useful information about the practice under study. It is sometimes thought that methods used in action research are purely qualitative. This does not have to be true. Although the overall analysis of the data generated by any methods used will be qualitative in nature, numerical or statistical information may be of great value to that analysis. For example, a statistical breakdown of examination or SATs passes may be a useful piece of data when exploring the effect of aspects of practice.

What is most important is that the researcher understands that different research methods illuminate only particular aspects of a situation. None give a whole picture. In seeking evidence of her practice, or the effectiveness of a change in practice, a teacher needs to look at it from different perspectives; she needs to employ a triangulation of methods.

Nenhum método, por si só, pode fornecer uma visão completa dos dados e dar as respostas todas, pelo que a triangulação afigura-se como a melhor estratégia. Desde que o investigador compreenda, como diz Berry (2006), das limitações inerentes a cada metodologia, pode sempre recorrer a várias das técnicas abaixo identificadas:

As long as they are aware of the limitations of a particular method, action researchers may thus use any of the following to help them reflect on their concern:

  • observation schedules – of children, students or themselves;
  • audio and video tape recording;
  • structured or semi-structured interviews;
  • class records;
  • statistical indicators;
  • field notes;
  • an analytic memo;
  • sociometry;
  • photography;
  • repertory grids;
  • questionnaires;
  • etc.!

O autor ainda distingue, de modo bem claro, as duas metodologias classicamente separadas entre qualitativas e quantitativas:

Quantitative research methods were originally developed in the natural sciences to study natural phenomena. However examples of quantitative methods now well accepted in the social sciences and education include:

  • surveys;
  • laboratory experiments;
  • formal methods such as econometrics;
  • numerical methods such as mathematical modelling.

Qualitative research methods were developed in the social sciences to enable researchers to study social and cultural phenomenon. Examples of qualitative methods include:

  • action research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework;
  • case study research - a case study is an empirical enquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context;
  • etnography - the ethnographer immerses her/himself in the life of people s/he studies and seeks to place the phenomena studied in its social and cultural context.

Fonte: http://www.edu.plymouth.ac.uk/resined/resedhme.htm

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